“Separate But Equal”                                         Name:

 

Instructions: Use the index to locate the information that is needed to provide a complete answer

to each of the following questions.   You may want to use other resources such as “U.S. History

eview Text” or World Book Online as a reference to answer the questions.  Complete this

assignment on a separate sheet of paper.

 

1.       Historians include the “Middle Passage” as part of the triangular trade.  What does

      term Middle Passage refer to in the triangular trade?   

 

2.       What did the Supreme Court rule in the Dred Scott case in 1856?

3.       How did the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 affect slavery in the United States?

 

4.       What is the first sentence of President Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address? 

 

5.       Which rights are guaranteed to all American citizens by the 14th Amendment to the

            Constitution of the United States?

 

6.       List the provisions of the Civil Rights Act 1866 (The term “provisions” means that you

      should list what the law said.).

 

7.       What did the Supreme Court rule in the Plessey v. Ferguson case in 1896?  How did

      this case affect segregation in the U.S?

 

8.       Answer the following questions concerning the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board

      of Education of Topeka Kansas in 1954:

a.        Why did Linda Brown’s family sue the Topeka Board of Education?

b.        How did the Supreme Court rule in this case?

 

9.       Beginning on May 4, 1961, a group of African American and white members of a

      group called the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) left Washington, D.C. on two

      buses bound for New Orleans, Louisiana.  They called themselves “Freedom Riders”. 

     What was the purpose (or goal) of the “Freedom Riders”? Were the Freedom Riders

     successful in reaching their goal?

 

10.    Look at the photographs on pages 854-855.  How do you think photographs like

      those found on pages 854-855 influenced public opinion concerning the civil rights

      movement in the 1950’s and 1960’s?

 

11.    List the provisions for the following laws:

a.        Civil Rights Act 1964

b.        Voting Rights Act 1965

 

12.    Provide a complete definition for the following terms:

           “Jim Crow Laws”                    segregation                          integration                           

             due process                              poll tax                                   literacy test

             black codes                              Ku Klux Klan                       lynching               

             precedent                                 nullify

 

13.    Give the importance for each of the following individuals in the struggle to end slavery

      and segregation, and to provide equal rights for all Americans.

 

     Frederick Douglass               Nat Turner                           Harriet Tubman

            Abraham Lincoln                    W.E.B. DuBois                     Booker T. Washington

            Thurgood Marshall                 Earl Warren                         Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

            Jackie Robinson                      Rosa Parks                           Ralph Bunche

            Medgar Evers                           Colin Powell                         Condoleezza Rice                               

            Malcolm X                                Harry Truman                     Barack Obama

            Lyndon Johnson

 

14.     The individuals listed below are controversial figures in American history.  Briefly

        explain why each of these  individuals is considered controversial (open to

        discussion and debate; disputed) in American history. 

 

Eugene V. Debs                                    Alger Hiss                            Robert Oppenheimer

 

 

“Separate But Equal”                                         Name:

 

Instructions: Use the index to locate the information that is needed to provide a complete

answer to each of the following questions.   You may want to use other resources such as

 U.S. History Review Text” or World Book Online as a reference to answer the questions. 

Complete this assignment on a separate sheet of paper.

 

1.       Historians include the “Middle Passage” as part of the triangular trade.  What does

       the term Middle Passage refer to in the triangular trade?   The inhumane part of the

       triangular trade that brought Africans to the West Indies and America to be sold as slaves. 

       P.102

 

2.       What did the Supreme Court rule in the Dred Scott case in 1856? Scott is a slave,

       and as a slave was not a citizen and had no right to bring a lawsuit.  Scott’s residence on

       free soil” did not make him free.  Slaves were property and  protected by the 5th Amendment. 

       Congress does not have the power to limit slavery in any territory; the Missouri Compromise

       is unconstitutional.  p.447

 

 

3.       How did the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 affect slavery in the United States?

       The Emancipation Proclamation said, that on January 1, 1863, “all person held as slaves

       with any state … in rebellion against the U.S., shall be then, thenceforward, and forever

       free.”  It applied only to the areas that the Confederate (southern) states controlled.  P.475

 

4.       What is the first sentence of President Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address?  Four score and

       seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty,

       and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.” P.991

 

5.       Which rights are guaranteed to all American citizens by the 14th Amendment to the

       Constitution of the United States?  All citizens are entitled to the right of “due process of

       law”. P. 247

 

6.       List the provisions of the Civil Rights Act 1866 (The term “provisions” means that you

       should list what the law said.  This act granted full citizenship to African Americans and gave

              federal government the power to intervene in state affairs to protect their rights. P505

 

7.       What did the Supreme Court rule in the Plessey v. Ferguson case in 1896?  How did this

        case affect segregation in the U.S?   The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as

        long as African Americans had access to public facilities or accommodations equal to those of

        whites.  This “separate but equal” doctrine provided a legal foundation for segregation in the

               South that lasted for more than 50 years.  P. 519

 

8.       Answer the following questions concerning the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board

       of Education of Topeka Kansas in 1954:

a.        Why did Linda Brown’s family sue the Topeka Board of Education? Seven year

       old African American Linda Brown was not permitted to attend an all-white

                             elementary school just blocks from her house. P. 839

b.        How did the Supreme Court rule in this case? The Supreme Court ruled

       unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas that it was

       unconstitutional to separate schoolchildren by race. P. 839

 

9.       Beginning on May 4, 1961, a group of African American and white members of a group

       called the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) left Washington, D.C. on two buses

       bound for New Orleans, Louisiana.  They called themselves “Freedom Riders”.  What

       was the purpose (or goal) of the “Freedom Riders”? The Supreme Court had ruled in

       1960 against segregated bus facilities, CORE decided to see whether the ruling was

       being enforced. Were the Freedom Riders successful in reaching their goal?  The bus

       trip went smoothly until it reached Alabama, where angry whites stoned and beat

       the Freedom Riders.  P. 849

 

10.    Look at the photographs on pages 854-855.  How do you think photographs like those

       found on pages 854-855 influenced public opinion concerning the civil rights movement

       in the 1950’s and 1960’s? Answers will vary, but the students may note that the images might

       encourage support for the Freedom Riders and the Civil Rights movement. P.854-55

 

11.    List the provisions for the following laws:

a.        Civil Rights Act 1964 The Act prohibited discrimination against African American in

       employment, voting and public accommodations  p. 847

b.        Voting Rights Act 1965 The law gave the federal government the power to force local

        officials to allow African Americans to register to vote.  P. 852

 

 

 

 

 

 

12.    Provide a complete definition for the following terms: (with the exception of Jim Crow

       and Ku Klux Klan all  definitions are in the glossary)

“Jim Crow Laws” – laws that required African Americans and whites to be

separated in almost every public place where they might come in contact with each

other. P 519                                          

Segregation – the separation or isolation of a race, class or group

Integration – (integrate) to end separation of different races and bring into equal

membership in society.

due process – the idea that the government must follow procedures established by

law and guaranteed by the Cons      

poll tax   - a tax of affixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person

could vote.                                           

literacy test – a method used to prevent African Americans from voting by requiring

prospective voters to read and write at a specified level.

black codes – laws passed in the South just after the Civil War aimed at controlling

freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers.                                                    

Ku Klux Klan – a group created after the Civil War in the South to control newly

freed African Americans through the use of threats, violence and murder. P.717   

lynchingputting to death a person by the illegal action of a mob.

precedent a tradition                                                       

nullifyto cancel or make ineffective

 

13.    Give the importance for each of the following individuals in the struggle to end slavery

        and segregation, and to provide equal rights for all Americans.  (see attached key)

 

Frederick Douglass                                           

Nat Turner                                          

Harriet Tubman

Abraham Lincoln                                               

W.E.B. DuBois                                    

Booker T. Washington

Thurgood Marshall                                            

Earl Warren                                        

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Jackie Robinson                                                 

Rosa Parks                                          

Ralph Bunche

Medgar Evers                                                      

Colin Powell                                        

Condoleezza Rice                               

Malcolm X                                                           

Harry Truman                                    

Barack Obama

Lyndon Johnson

 

14.     The individuals listed below are controversial figures in American history.  Briefly

        explain why each of these individuals is considered controversial (open to discussion

        and debate; disputed) in American history. 

 

Eugene V. Debs – helped to create the American Socialist party in 1906.  Debs ran

for President six times p. 613             

Alger Hiss – an high official in the State Department in the 1930’s and 1940’s, he

was accused of spying for the USSR during the Cold War.

Robert Oppenheimer – “The Father of the Atomic Bomb”; American physicist

who directed the “Manhattan Project”, the U.S. project to build the first atomic

(nuclear) bomb during World War II.  In the 1950’s, he was accused of being a

communist and was removed from projects associated with nuclear power.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     Revised 3/7