I.  The New Nation (1789-1825)

 

A.      U.S. Presidents – “Federalist Era” – Federalists supported a strong federal (national) government and believed that the powers of the state governments needed to be limited in order to prevent a return to the weak

government the nation had under the Articles of Confederation.

     1.   George Washington (1789-1797)

                2.   John Adams (1797-1801)

    

    B.   Federalist Era (1789-1801) 

                   1.    Precedents – a tradition; an example followed by other Presidents.

                                       a.    During the Washington’s time in office many precedents, or traditions,

                                              were created that other President’s followed:

                        1)  Washington created a cabinet to serve as his advisors.

                        2)  Washington asked to be called “Mr. President”.  

                        3)   Washington created the precedent of the U.S. being neutral in foreign

                               Wars.

                     a)    During Washington’s time as President the U.S. avoided

                            involvement in world affairs; this is called “isolationism”.

                     b)   Washington’s Farewell Address” (1796)

                           (1)   When Washington retired as President he published an essay

                                  (“letter to the editor”) in which he gave advice to

                                  the U.S. – this essay is called “Washington’s Farewell Address”

                           (2)   What did Washington’s Farewell Address say?: 

                                 (a)    The US should avoid alliances with other nations because

                                          it could cause  the US to fight in a war that we don’t need

                                          to fight.

                      (b)    This is called “isolationism” because the US became

                              isolated from other nations

                                                                     (c)   “Isolationism” was US foreign policy from the end of

                                                                              Washington’s presidency until the end of World War II

                                                                              (1945).

                2.    Hamilton’s Financial Plan and the Creation of Political Parties

                                      a.   Alexander Hamilton was George Washington’s Secretary of the Treasury

                                               1)     Hamilton created a plan to pay off the nation’s debts from the

                                                       American Revolution

2)     What was Hamilton’s Plan?

                                                        a)   create The Bank of the United States (B.U.S.)

                                                        b)   raise taxes and sell bonds to raise money for the BUS

c)       the money from the taxes and the bonds would be used
to pay the nation’s debts

3)    Thomas Jefferson believed Hamilton’s Plan was illegal because the

       Constitution did not say that the government could have a bank.

         a)    Jefferson and Hamilton had different ideas about how to read

                the Constitution

               (1)  Hamilton believed that the Constitution had “implied

                      powers”; the government had powers that were not

                      specifically mentioned in the Constitution (this is often

                      called a  “loose interpretation” of the Constitution). 

                (2)  Jefferson had a “strict interpretation” of the Constitution;

                       the government can only do the things that are directly

                       stated in the Constitution.

4)  Compromise of 1790 – An agreement between Alexander Hamilton, 

     Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (probably President Washington)

                                                    that allowed Hamilton’s Financial Plan to become law as long as the U.S.

                                                    capital was moved to the south (border between Maryland and Virginia).  

                                       b.  Creation of Political Parties

                                              1)  The fight between Hamilton and Jefferson over the BUS led to the first

                                                    political parties in the U.S. (see chart page 269)

 

               

              3.  Creation of “states’ rights” – The people who supported “state’s rights” believed that the

                   federal government created by the Constitution was too strong, and believed that the state’s

                   should have the right to make their own laws without interference from the federal

                   government.

                                          a.“XYZ Affair” – a disagreement with France that nearly caused the U.S. to declare

                                           war on France.

                                                  1)  France had a revolution in 1789, and their revolution started a war in

                                                   Europe.

                                             2)  France expected the U.S. to be their ally, but we refused because of

                                                  Washington’s Farewell Address”.

                                             3)  Americans who supported France (Jefferson) and French aliens in

                                                  the U.S. began to write bad things about President Adams in U.S.

                                                  newspapers.

                                             4)  Alien and Sedition Acts – laws passed by President Adams to punish

                                                  anyone who wrote or said anything that “weakened” the U.S.

                                                  government during the XYZ Affair

                                     b.  Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – created by Thomas Jefferson and James

                                         Madison to fight the Alien and Sedition Acts

                                             1)  What did the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions say?:

                                                        a)  Stated that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the Constitution.

                                                        b)  States have the right to “nullify”, or ignore” federal laws that they

                                                             believe are unconstitutional.

                                             2)  Why are the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions important?  - they

                                                   created the idea of “states’ rights”

                                                        a)  states’ rights – the rights and powers independent of the federal

                                                             government that are reserved for the states by the Constitution: the

                                                             belief that states’ rights superseded federal rights and law.

                                                        b)  We still fight about this today!! – what is the national government

                                                              allowed to do?????

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Federalist Era (1789-1801)                                                    Name:

Washington and Adams Administrations

 

Vocabulary:  Use the glossary in the textbook to provide a complete definition for each term.

 

neutrality                                   precedent                                  national debt

bond                                         tariff                                         impressments

partisan                                     alien                                         sedition

state’s rights                             Conestoga Wagon                     secede             

embargo                                   War Hawks                              nationalism

nullify

 

 

Main Ideas: Use class notes and the textbook to answer each question. 

 

  1. George Washington was our first President.  He served two terms from 1789 to 1797.  When Washington retired from the Presidency, he wrote and published an essay that we now call “Washington’s Farewell Address”.  What did this essay say about foreign alliances?  Why is this document important in American history?

 

  1. During Washington’s term as the President, the United States was heavily in debt.  What event caused most of the debt the U.S. needed to pay off during Washington administration? 

 

  1. Who served as Washington’s Secretary of the Treasury?  Describe the plan created by the Secretary of the Treasury to pay off the nation’s debts from the American Revolution. 

 

  1. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison opposed the plan created by the Secretary of the Treasury to pay the nation’s debts from the American Revolution. Why did Jefferson and Madison oppose the plan? 

 

  1. Use the chart on page 269 in the text to answer  the following question:

               “How did Hamilton and Jefferson differ in the way they interpreted the U.S.

               Constitution?”

 

  1. How did the argument between Hamilton and Jefferson influence politics in U.S. history? 

 

  1. Make a chart listing the differences between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

 

  1. What was the Compromise of 1790?

 

  1. Who wrote the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?  When were these documents written?  What did they say?  What does nullify mean? 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B. Virginia Dynasty and Manifest Destiny

 

1.  What is the Virginia Dynasty? – Three Presidents in a row from Virginia!

      a.   Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)

      b.   James Madison (1809-1817)

      c.   James Monroe (1817-1825)

 

2.   What is Manifest Destiny? – The idea that the U.S. was meant to (it was our

      destiny to) expand our borders from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.

 

3.   Events during the Virginia Dynasty that are a part of “Manifest Destiny” in

      American History:

 

a.  Louisiana Purchase (1803) – President Jefferson purchased the land between

    the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains from France (ruled by

    Napoleon Bonaparte) for $15 million.

`1) Importance of the Louisiana Purchase:

a)   The US gained control of the Mississippi River.

b)   Doubled the size of the US.

                                2)  Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) Meriwether Lewis and

                                     William Clark led an expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase

                                     and to see if an all water route could be found connecting the

                                     Missouri River with the Pacific Ocean.

b.  War of 1812 (1812-1815) – a war between the U.S. and Britain

       1)  Cause of the War of 1812

   a)   impressments – forcing people into service, as in the navy.

   b)  The British were stopping American ships and forcing

         American sailors (using impressments) to serve in the British

         navy.

2)   The War; Important Battles from The War of 1812:

         a)  U.S. Invasion of Canada – the US invaded Canada but the

               invasion failed; we didn’t gain any territory but we tried.

b)   Battle of Washington, D.C.

       (1)  The British invaded the US, attacked Washington, D.C.

              and burned the White House and the Capitol building.

                                        c)  Battle of Ft. McHenry (Baltimore, Maryland)

 (1)  The British attacked Baltimore during the War of 1812 -   

 (2)  During the battle, Francis Scott Key wrote the Star-

        Spangled Banner.

   d)  Battle of New Orleans (1815)

(1)  Last battle of the War of 1812

(2)  The British attacked New Orleans, Louisiana in an effort

      to gain control of the Mississippi River.

(3)  American forces led by General Andrew Jackson

      defeated the British.

                             

 

 

                                       e)  Results of the War of 1812:  “Who cares?”

                                            (1)  Treaty of Ghent (1814) - Treaty that ended the War of

                                                   1812; Neither the U.S. or Britain gained any territory and

                                                   impressments continued.

                                            (2)  Industrial Revolution

                                                  (a)  The war caused the Industrial Revolution to start in

                                                         the U.S.

                                                  (b)  During the war, Americans could not buy foreign

                                                         goods, therefore, U.S. factories had to make more

                                                         things.

                                       f)   Andrew Jackson became a BIG hero during the War of 1812

                                            in the U.S.; in 1828 he is elected President.

                                             

 

4.  Florida (1819)

a.       U.S. bought Florida from Spain in 1819 for $5 million.

b.      The U.S. bought Florida because Indians in Florida were attacking

towns in Georgia and Alabama.

 

            5.  Monroe Doctrine (1823)

a.   Many European colonies in the Western Hemisphere became

      independent nations between 1800 and 1820.

b.   The U.S. became worried that these new nations could be invaded

      by European countries, and that the U.S. could be threatened by

      these invasions.

                           c.   President Monroe created the “Monroe Doctrine” to protect the U.S.

                                 from an attack by a European nation.

                          d.   What did the Monroe Doctrine say?: 

                                 1)  The U.S. would attack any nation that tried to create a colony

                                      in America or attempted to interfere with a nation in the

     Western Hemisphere.

e.       Why is the Monroe Doctrine important?:  This was U.S. foreign

      policy in the Western Hemisphere for 100 years … the U.S. does not    

      allow other nations to interfere with the countries in the Western

                                Hemisphere.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Review                                                             Name:

Virginia Dynasty (1801-1825)

 

Instructions:  Use the classnotes, and the textbook, to answer each of the following questions.

 

Vocabulary: Provide a complete definition for each of the following terms using the glossary in the textbook.

laissez-faire                                           customs duties

judicial review                                       Conestoga Wagon

secede                                                  tribute

neutral rights                                         impressments

embargo                                               War Hawks

nationalism                                            frigate

privateer

 

People: Provide the significance for each person during the Virginia Dynasty and Manifest Destiny. 

Thomas Jefferson                                  James Madison

Jame Monroe                                        Napoleon Bonaparte

Andrew Jackson                                   Lewis and Clark

Sacajawea                                            Francis Scott Key

Toussaint L’Ouverture

 

Main Idea: Use your classnotes to answer each question in a complete sentence on a separate sheet of paper.

 

1.  What is the “Virginia Dynasty”?  List the people who served as President during the

     Virginia Dynasty.

2.  What is “Manifest Destiny”? 

3.  Who was the President when the U.S. bought the Louisiana Purchase?

4.  Which nation sold the Louisiana Purchase to the U.S.?

5.  How the Louisiana Purchase changed the U.S.?  Provide two (2) examples in your

     answer.

6.  When did the War of 1812 take place?

7.  Who was President during the War of 1812?  What was the cause of this war?

8.  To answer the following questions, use the map of the War of 1812 on page 298 in your

     textbook.

                  a.  How did the British use their navy in the War of 1812?

                   b.  List five (4) U.S. states (or U.S. territory) where a battle took place during the War

                        of 1812.

9.  How did the War of 1812 affect the following people and places?:

    1. The White House and the U.S. Capitol building.
    2. Andrew Jackson
    3. Francis Scott Key

10.  Why is the Treaty of Ghent an important document in American history?

11.  How did the War of 1812 change the U.S. economy?

12.  How did Florida become a part of the United States?

13. What does the “Monroe Doctrine” say?

14. Why is the Monroe Doctrine an important document in American history?

15. Briefly explain why the U.S. created the Monroe Doctrine.

 

 

 

C.  Age of Jackson” – Andrew Jackson dominated U.S politics from the 1825 to the 1841.

                1.  Who was Andrew Jackson?

                            a.  Andrew Jackson was from Tennessee.

                            b.  Jackson was a farmer (he owned a plantation) and a lawyer.

                            c.  Jackson was a general in Indian Wars in Georgia and Florida, and in the War of 1812.

                            d.  After the War of 1812, Jackson became a Senator  from Tennessee.

                            e.  In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected the 7th President of the United States.

                            f.  Events from Jackson’s Presidency:

1)       Jackson and his supporters created the Democratic Party.

2)       Jackson and his supporters created “nominating conventions” to choose candidates for President (the Democrats and Republicans still do this).

3)       Jackson “killed” the BUS (it was not replaced until the creation of

the Federal Reserve in 1913).

4)       Indian Removal Act (1833) – Jackson ignored the Supreme Court and moved Indians in Georgia and Florida to Oklahoma.

5)       created the “spoils system” – Jackson gave his supporters government jobs.

6)       Force Bill (1833) – Jackson threatened to use the army against any state that nullified (see Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions) a law passed by Congress.

                            g.  Why is Andrew Jackson considered to be an important President?

                                              1)   Many historians consider Jackson to be “the first modern President”. 

                                              2)   What does that mean??? … Jackson made the President a more powerful

                                                    job in the government

                                                   a)  He ignored the Supreme Court ruling for the Indian Removal Act.

                                                   b)  He threatened to use the military against states nullifying national laws.

                                             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Age of Jackson                                       Name:

 

Instructions:  Use the class notes, and the textbook, to answer the following questions.  As always, answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper using complete sentences.

 

  1. What must a candidate do in order to win a Presidential election?
  2. In the Presidential election of 1824, which candidate received the most electoral votes?   Who won the election of 1824?   334-35
  3. In the election of 1824, John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay (Speak of the House and a representative from Kentucky) were accused of making a “corrupt bargain”.  What was the “corrupt bargain”?  335
  4. Jackson’s supporters created a new political party for the Election of 1828.  What was the name of the party created by Jackson’s supporters?  335
  5. Why is Andrew Jackson called “Old Hickory”?  336
  6. Jackson created the “spoils system”.  What is the spoils system? 337
  7. Jackson’s supporters created nominating conventions.  What is the purpose of a nominating convention?  Do we still have nominating conventions today?  337
  8. In 1832, Congress passed a new tariff bill.  The state of South Carolina passed a law called the “Nullification Act”, declaring that the tariff law was illegal, and they refused to obey the law.  What did President Jackson threaten to do if South Carolina “nullified” the tariff laws passed by Congress in 1832?  338-39
  9. What did the Indian Removal Act say?  How did President Jackson react when the Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee could not be forced up give up their land in Georgia?  342-43
  10. Read this section in your textbook; “War Against the Bank” on page 348-349.  After reading that section, answer this question:

Based on what you have read, why did President Jackson dislike the the Bank of the United States (BUS)?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.  Manifest Destiny …. Continued!!  (1841-1853)

 

               1.  Manifest Destiny started during the Virginia Dynasty when President Jefferson

                    acquired the Louisiana Purchase (1803). 

                   

               2.  More Events from the Manifest Destiny time period:

                           a.  Annexation of Texas (1845)

         1)  Texas was part of Mexico for many years.

         2)   Many Americans, led by Stephen Austin, moved into Texas in

               the 1820’s.

                                              3)   “Texas War” (1835-36) The Americans in Texas fought a war with

                                                     Mexico to make Texas independent from Mexico.

                                                        a)  Americans led by Sam Houston fought against the

                                                              Mexican army and won.

                                                        b)  The most famous event from the war is the Battle of the Alamo.

                                                        c)  Texas became independent and was a country … called “The Lone

             Star Republic … from 1836 to 1845.

         4)  Texas became a U.S. state in 1845.

                3.  “54, 40 Or Fight” (1846) – US gains control of  Oregon Country

                           a.  US nearly went to war with Britain (again!) over Oregon and the border between the

                                US and Canada (Canada was still a British colony).

                           b.  US believed the border was at 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and nearly invaded

                                Canada to retain that border,

                           c.  Both nations agreed to settle the issue at 49 degrees north latitude.

                           d.  49N is the border between the US and Canada today.

                           e.  Many Americans moved to Oregon on the Oregon Trail, probably the most famous trail

                                to the western states and the Pacific coast.

 

 

 4.   Mexican War (1846-1848)

                           a.  CauseMexico became angry when the U.S. took control of Texas and a dispute

                                started over what the border was between the U.S. and Mexico.

                           b.  The War

         1)  James Polk was President.

                                              2)  The U.S. invaded Mexico and took over the country; U.S. troops occupied

                                                   Mexico City.

                                              3)  Two generals became heroes in the Mexican War: General Winfield Scott,

                                                   General Zachary Taylor (Zachary Taylor was elected the 12th President of

                                                    of the U.S. in 1848).

                           c. The Results of the Mexican War

                                              1)  Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) gave US control of the    

                                                   “Mexican Session”; present-day states of California, New

    Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, and Utah.

                                              2)  Because of the Mexican War, the western boundary of the U.S. became the

                                                    Pacific Ocean.

 

        d. President James Polk

          1)  Polk was important to Manifest Destiny because:

         a)  He supported adding Texas to the US.

         b)  He was President when the U.S. gained control of Oregon

         c)  He was President during the Mexican War

         d)  He was President when the U.S. expanded to the Pacific Ocean!

 

 

 

U.S. History (1800-1850)                                           Name:

Monroe Doctrine

Manifest Destiny (Expansion to the Pacific)

 

 

Instructions:  Use your class notes to answer the following questions.  As always, answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper using complete sentences.

 

  1. What did the Monroe Doctrine say? 
  2. Why is the Monroe Doctrine important in American history?
  3. Which country owned Texas before 1835?
  4. Give the importance of the following people in Texas history:
    1. Stephen Austin
    2. Sam Houston
  5. From 1836 to 1845 Texas was the “Lone Star Republic”.  What was the “Lone Star Republic”?
  6. In which year did Texas become a U.S. state?
  7. Which U.S. territory is associated with the saying “54, 40 or Fight!”?
  8. Which nation did the U.S. nearly go to war with in order to settle the border between the Oregon Country and Canada?
  9. Which line of latitude is considered to be the border between the U.S. and Canada today?
  10. What caused the war between the U.S. and Mexico in 1846?
  11. Who was President during the Mexican War?
  12. As a result of the Mexican War, the US gained control of the Mexican Cession.  Which present-day states were part of the Mexican Cession? (You may need to use your textbook for reference to answer this question.)
  13. Why are Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor important Americans during the Mexican War?
  14. Why is President James Polk considered to be an important President during the Manifest Destiny time period in American history?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US History (1789-1853)

Age of Jackson (1825-1841)

 

Instructions:  Use class notes and the textbook to complete each question using a complete sentence.  Use the page numbers listed after each question to help you find the information in the book.  For some questions, your class notes may be the best source of information to answer the questions.

 

1.  The American System was a program of “internal improvements” proposed by Henry Clay. 

     What are internal improvements?  List the other ideas that were a part of Henry Clay’s American   

     System.  324

2.  Why did many Southerners oppose the American System? 324

3.  Which battle from the War of 1812 made General Andrew Jackson an American hero?  300

4.  Answer the following questions about President Jackson:

    1. Jackson’s supporters created a new political party.  Give the name of Jackson’s party
    2. Why is Jackson called “Old Hickory”?  335
    3. Jackson created the “spoils system”.  What is the spoils system? 337
    4. Jackson’s supporters created nominating conventions.  What is the purpose of a nominating convention?  Do we still have nominating conventions today?  337
    5. In 1832, Congress passed a new tariff bill.  The state of South Carolina passed the Nullification Act, declaring that the tariff law was illegal, and refused to obey the law.  What did President Jackson threaten to do if South Carolina nullified the tariff laws passed by Congress?  338-39
    6. What did the Indian Removal Act say?  How did President Jackson react when the Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee could not be forced up give up their land in Georgia?  342-43

 

 

US History (1789-1853)

Manifest Destiny (1841-1853)

 

Instructions:  Use class notes and the textbook to complete each question using a complete sentence.  Use the page numbers listed after each question to help you find the information in the book.  For some questions, your class notes may be the best source of information to answer the questions.

 

  1. Which country owned Texas before 1835?
  2. Give the importance of the following people in Texas history:
    1. Stephen Austin
    2. Sam Houston
  3. Texas was the “Lone Star Republic” from 1836 to 1845.  What was the “Lone Star Republic”?
  4. In which year did Texas become a US state?
  5. Which US territory is associated with the saying “54, 40 or Fight!”?
  6. Which nation did the US nearly go to war with in order to settle a border dispute between Oregon and Canada?
  7. Which line of latitude creates the border between the US and Canada today?
  8. What caused the war between the US and Mexico in 1846?
  9. Who was President during the Mexican War?
  10. As a result of the Mexican War, the US gained control of the Mexican Session.  Which present-day states were part of the Mexican Session?
  11. What did Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor do in the Mexican War?
  12. Why is President James Polk considered to be an important President during the Manifest

       Destiny time period in American history?